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Oyate Research Center


Mission statement


1654-56 Groseilliers & Radisson lived on Prairie Island.

1676 April 15th a royal decree..Forbids anyone form engaging in the trading of pelts in the Indian Villages

1679- Pierre & Jean Pepin explored the lands of the Mdewakantons and named the lake. Lake Pepin

1679 Sept. Daniel Dulhut/Duluth helped with a Peace Treaty between the Sioux who dominate all of Lake Superior and the surrounding Valleyand the Sauteux on the present site of Duluth MN.

1680 Jesuit priests Father Jacques Cravier at Fort Creve Coeur among the Dakota.

1680 - Father Hennepin canoed Lake Pepin called the Lac Des Pleus/ Lake Of The Tears, taken prisoner by Sioux there.

May 1680- Daniel Graysolon Duluth /Dulhut travels to the Mississippi River by way of the St. Croix River, he learns of Hennepins capture. Duluth, induced the natives to free Hennepin and his men.

1683 The French publish Father Hennepin’s writings in the book.. Description of Louisiana

1683-86- Fort Perrot built by Nicholas Perrot and 20 men on the eastern side of Lake Pepin, also called Fort Bon Secours & Fort LeSuer.

1686- Perrot leaves and ends his explorations of the Valley of the Mississippi.

1689 - Nicholas Perrot returns with 40 men to Build a Fort at lower end of Lake Pepin and reestablishes trade with the Dakota.

1693 or 95 - Pierre LeSeur builds post at Fort Isle Pel'ee /Prairie Island / Red Wing Village

1695- LeSueur writes that his men had found a wife of a Dakota Chief held prisoner at Mackinaw. He bought her freedom and took her to Montreal where she was later reunited with her tribe.

1695 -A Red Wing Chief/Headman travels to Montreal with LeSeur and an Ojibwa Chief to meet Gov, de Frontenac

1700 - LeSueur builds Fort L'Huillier along the Blue Earth River near Mankato.

Winter 1700- Mantanton Chief Wakantape meets with Pierre LeSueur at the blue earth river near Mankato. Wakantape tells him that he and his men and other villages along the Mississippi can supply LeSueur with metals that LeSueur is in search of. LeSueur writes that members of his band have blackened there faces, they were in mourning for there dead Chief. They have hide covered teepees. Mantanton's where located on the banks of the Minnesota River east of Shakopee.

1727- Fort Beauharbias /The Sioux Post built by Rene Boucher along Lake Pepin below Frontenac. Jesuit fathers Michel Guignas & Nicolas De Gonnor arrive.


1740 After the Mdewakanton slew several Chippewa, a tribe which had been promised protection by the French, Wapasha and those with him on the raid offered to submit to French justice in order to keep peace with the incoming military forces of the Europeans.

March 9, 1740, the action was recorded by the commander of the French garrison at Mackinac, Michigan. No retribution was taken against the Sioux. 

1761. A Dakota named Ixkatapay had shot an English trader called Pagonta (Mallard Duck) by the Indians. The two had quarreled earlier, and Pagonta was reportedly killed while sitting in his cabin smoking. To appease the British, it was decided Ixkatapay would be turned over to them for the killing. Wapasha I led the party, composed of 100 men, to the English headquarters in Quebec.  By the time Wapasha had reached Green Bay, Wisconsin, there were only six of the original 100 left, Wapasha and five braves. The others had drifted off in small groups. One of these deserting bands had taken Ixkatapay with them and returned to their homelands.
Wapasha I and the remaining five continued to Quebec and offered themselves as surrogates for Ixkatapay in the English court. He explained the plight of his people and their desire for peace, and asked the British to return to the area. Taken with his courage, the British awarded the Dakota chief seven military medals, hanging one around his neck in a ceremony at the fort

1763 Lieut. Gorrell, an English Officer mentions their Condition in this respect… “This day, 12 warriors of the Sous came here (Green Bay Wisconsin) It is certainly the greatest nation of Indians ever yet found. Not above 2000 of them were ever armed with fire-arms, the rest depending entirely on bows and arrows and darts, which they use with more skill than any other Indian nation in North America. They can shoot the wildest and largest beasts in the woods at 70 or 100 yards distance. They are remarkable for their dancing; the other nations take the fashion from them

1763 Wapasha I convened a council in 1763 to find a way to bring the British back to this area.

1759 Possibly the year Chief Red Wing is born

1766-67 Jonathan Carver spends several months with the Dakota around St. Paul. He says… “Near the river St. Croix reside three bands of the Naudowessie Indians, called the River bands. This nation is composed, at present, of 11 bands. They were originally 12, but the Assiniboin some years ago, revolting, and separating themselves from the others, there remain only at this time 11.

1767 During the American Revolution, the Sioux fought on the side of the British. Wapasha led his warriors against the Sauk and Fox forces which had sided with the rebelling colonists. In British military communiqués, he is referred to as General Wapasha. His aid in the British cause during the revolution was not forgotten. When he traveled to Montreal on one of his many visits to the British army commanders there, he was always greeted with the salute of a cannon.

1778 August 17th A council at Montreal with 8 nations one being the Sioux. Sioux chief given metal and certificate. Metal has the kings bust on one side and the other side has Lion and Unicorn.

1782- Smallpox brought by Europeans kills entire villages along the Mississippi and throughout the Midwest.

1788- Jean Bte Perrault trades rum for furs with members of Wabasha's village.

1805- September 18th Col. Zebulon M. Pike a U.S. army officer and James Frazier come to visit with Hupahuduta the Red Wing Chief he is escorted by James Frazier.



1805 Sept 21. The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, 1: 76: "We made our encampment on the N. E. point of the big [Pike’s] Island opposite [Fort Snelling or St. Peters.] . . . I observed a white flag on shore to-day, and on landing, discovered it to be white silk; it was suspended over a scaffold, on which were laid four dead bodies, two inclosed in boards, and two in bark. They were wrapped up in blankets, which appeared to be quite new. They were the bodies, I was informed, of two Sioux women who had lived with two Frenchmen, one of their children, and some other relative; two of whom died at St. Peters and two at St. Croix, but were brought here to be deposited upon this scaffold together. This is the manner of Sioux burial."

1805 Monday Sept 23rd.Pike negotiates a treaty with 7 Chiefs/headmen of the Mdewakanton   "Prepared for the Council, which we commenced about 12 O’clock. I had a bowery or Shade built of my sails on the Beach, into which only my gentlemen (ye traders) and the Chiefs entered. I addressed them in a Speech which though long, and touching on many points, yet the principle ones were the Granting of the Lands at this Place, Falls of Saint Anthony & St. Croix: and the making peace with the Chippeways. I was replied to by Le Fils de Buichon Le Petit Corbeaux (Little Crow) and L’Orignal Leve /Tamaha aka Rising Moose,.. They gave me the land required; about 1”00000 Acres, (equal to 200,000 dollars) and promised me a safe passport for myself and any Chiefs I might bring down; but Spoke doubtfully relative the peace. I gave them presents to the amount of about 200 dollars and as soon as the Council was over, I suffered the Traders to present them with some liquor, which, with that I myself gave, was equal to 60 gallons. In one half hour they were all embarked for their respective Villages.

Sept. 23, 1805 Coues, Expeditions, 1: 232-236, Letter of Lt. Zebulon Pike, at Pike Island, to General James Wilkinson. "I arrived here two days since. . . . All the young warriors of the two villages of Sioux near this place, and many chiefs had marched against the Chippeways, to revenge a stroke made on their people, the very day after their return from their visit to the Illinois; ten persons were then killed on this ground. I yesterday saw the mausoleum, in which all their bodies are deposited, and which is yet daily marked with blood of those who swear to revenge them."

1806 Jan 5th Wapasha I died of neck cancer , at a camp on the Root River in Houston County, Minnesota.

1806 April 13th Pike returns after wintering with the Chippewas and English Traders. again arrives at Red Wing Village, Red Wing talks of the rascals...Fur traders Murdoch Cameron and Joseph Rollette at the mouth of the St. Peters River.

1806 May 27th Parchment document written in French and English, given to Tatanka mani/ Walking Buffalo aka Chief Red Wing

1807 Chief Shakea The Red Wing, on a hunting excursion, dreamed of the enemy attacking. At 2:00am the next night Chippewa attacked, killing several before the Dakota came out in large numbers and the Chippewa retreated. The Dakota pursued them and over took them on an island covered in Aspen, they fired the woods, many Chippewa perished.

1812- Parchment document reads....Bearer hereof, First Chief of the Men-de-wa-ton Band of Nacota Sioux Tribe of Indians, commonly called Tar-ton-ga-manee has been on a visit to the seat of the government and has behaved himself with propriety and like a good man. Given at the War office of the United States this twenty-sixth day of August in the year 1812. Signed W. Eustis. With original gov seal.

1812 Another one of the mdewakanton headmen who sided with the U.S. in the 1812 war was Tohami Rising Moose, he joined the Americans at St. Louis where he was commissioned by Gen. Clark

1815-Parchment document hand painted eagle and government seal reads... William Clark- To All Who Shall See These Present. In consideration of the fidelity, zeal, and attachment testified by Tatonga mane( Walking Buffalow, 1st Chief of the tribe of the Lakes to the government of the United States; and by virtue of the power and authority me vested, I do hereby confirm the said Tatongamane Chief of the Band of Sioux aforesaid, having bestowed upon him the Big Medal; willing all and singular the Indians, Inhabitants thereof, to obey him as a chief, and all officers in the service of the United States to treat him accordingly. Given under my hand at St. Louis, this twenty ninth day of July in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and fifteen and of the United States the Fortieth, By his excellency's command, William Clark Missouri Territory.

1815 July 19th Chief Red Wing / Walking Buffalo signed Peace Treaty at Portage Des Sioux above St. Louis.

1816 Chief Walking Buffalo/Tatankamani signs friendship treaty along with 8 bands of Sioux, 3 tribes called the Sioux’s of the Leaf, the Sioux’s of the Broad Leaf and the Sioux’s who shoot in the Pine Tops.

1817-Major Stephen Long visits Red Wing's village, as they leave they drop off Wazzecoota a talkative member of Wapasha's Band a few miles south of Red Wing Village, Wapasha prairie/Winona MN, Upon Long's arrival Wabashas band hoisted two American flags and saluted him by firing several guns ahead of him.

1817 On Longs return they found Red Wing the younger, son of the old Red Wing Chief, His father was away hunting.

1818 Chief Red Wing testifies for the heirs of Jonathan Carver who claimed title to a large area east of the Mississippi which Carver claimed had been ceded him by the Indians, that the two chiefs who gave the deed on which Carver’s claim was based where Chief Red Wings Uncles, Snake and Tortoise

1818 Lawrence Taliaferro instated as first United States Indian Agent at Fort Snelling.

1819 Fort Snelling is built upon the west bank of the Mississippi at it’s junction with the St . Peters River aka Minnesota River.

1819 The war department orders Major Forsyth to ship $2000 worth of goods by steamboat to the Dakota in payment for the site on which Fort Snelling was built.

1819 July 5th Prairie Du Chien Red Wings son meets with Major Thomas Forsyth, the red wing band was mourning the loss of a man at the hands of the Chippewa’s.

1821 Henry Schoolcraft arrives at Tatankamani /Red Wings Village which is located 6 miles north of Lake Pepin. He writes...Tatankamani is now considered the First Chief of his nation. He appears about 60 years old, they eat sturgeon, deer and have several fine corn fields

1821 Indian Agent Lawrence Taliaferro lands with his keelboat at the mouth of the Upper Iowa river, he is visited by Chief Wabasha and a band of 78 men. The agent gave Wabasha a present.

1823 May- The steamboat, The Virginia, the first steamboat to navigate the waters of the Mississippi above St. Louis stopped at Red Wing on it’s journey to Fort Snelling. Chief Red Wing and his leading warriors came on board. The travelers smoked the peace pipe with them and listened to some long and tedious speeches detailing the wrongs the red men had suffered up to that time from the white men.

1823 Treaty signed by James Monroe and John Quincy Adams at Prairie Du Chien.

1823 June 30th 1823, U.S. Army officer Major Long made his second visit to this site, after traveling 22 miles along the western shores. “The Chief Shakea, (the man who paints himself red) invited our party to his lodge with a view of a formal conversation with us. As a compliment to the party a flag was hoisted to the breexe above the cabin by him on the Indian Council House. A deputation of some of his warriors waited at our encampment to invite us to his lodge. We where received in good ceremony, the Chief and his son Tatankamani Walking Buffalo were seated next to the entrance. We took our stations near them on the same bed frame while his warriors seated themselves on the frame opposite to us. This was followed by hand shaking and the smoking of the pipe of peace.

1823 Visiting Geologist William H. Keating described some of the Red Wing men as “very fine-looking,” with one resembling Napoleon.

1823-1825 4 soldiers who escaped from Ft Snelling were killed by the Dakota of Red Wing's Band, and their bodies were left on the shores of Lake Pepin, where they were later found half-eaten by the birds.

1824 Agent Lawrence Taliaferro transports Sioux, Chippewa, and Menominee Indians from St. Peters to Washington DC.

1825 April 2, the first steamboat known to have carried supplies up to Fort Snelling and to the Columbia Fur Company's Post at Lands End, about a mile above the fort on the Minnesota River.

1825 - August 19th, 1825, Prairie du Chien, Treaty was signed by Mdewakanton Chiefs

1826 - Lawrence Taliaferro reports that he had made seven locations on the waters of the Mississippi alone. One at the mouth of Chippeway River, one at the Falls of St. Croix, one on Crow Island, one at Sandy Lake, one at Leaf Lake, one at Leach Lake and one at Red Lake. At the same time 10 other posts were established within Taliaferro's jurisdiction. These were posts owned by The Columbia, The Cheyenne American, and the American Fur Companies.

1827 Francis V. Badin was stationed at Prairie du Chien, where he signs the registers, "Francois Vint Badin, priest," commencing May 29, 1827. During that year and the years 1828, 1829 and 1830, he makes many records of baptism, marriages and burials at Prairie du Chien, Galena and Fever River.

1827 September 4th. The bearer Red Wing Chief of the Sioux at the heart of Lake Pepin may be relied on as the firm and unshaken friend of the Americans- as such it is earnestly hoped that all officers of the Army & others into whose hands this recommendation may fall will extend their charity and friendly civilities to him as an example to other Indians besides doing a god old man a service. Given at St.Peters this 4th day of September 1827

Lawrence Taliafero Indian Agent at St.Peters.Included at bottom of document….See May 17th 1829

1829 March 4th - Indian Agent Talifero writes that Old Red Wing dies while on hunting trip away from his village. Wakuta informs Mr. Hancock that Chief Red Wing was buried on a bluff near Wabasha.

1829 May- Forty Mdewakanton of Red Wing’s band, called on the Indian Agent at Fort Snelling and informed him that since the death of their old Chief Red Wing they had been unable to choose another.

1829 May 17th Document to Red Wing September 1827 included at bottom of document left hand corner… Transference to Wahcoota the son of the ????? Chief who died the 4th March 1829.

May 17th 1829 Law Taliaferro. In other writings it list Wakute as a brother to Tatankamani, and also a step son, and nephew.. Wakute Jr. in the late 1870’s at the age of 60 or so said he was a brother to Tatankamani .

1830 July 15th 1830 at Prairie du Chein after 2 weeks of negotiation, the Mdewakantons Wapekute, Wahpeton and the Sissitonwan ceded to the United States the "neutral ground, lying in Iowa, receiving there for an annuity of $2000 for 10 years. They conveyed to their relatives of mixed blood that tract of land about Lake Pepin known as the “Half-breed tract.” “Beginning at a place called the barn, below and near the village of the Red Wing chief, and running back fifteen miles, thence in a parallel line with lake Pepin and the Mississippi about thirty-two miles to a point opposite Au Boeuf river, thence fifteen miles to the grand encampment opposite the river aforesaid.” This is the tract upon which our annals are laid, and with which the history of the city of Wabasha is so closely connected. Oliver Cratte, of this place, asserts that he was present at that treaty, and that the above is a true rendition of it; also that these lands were intended for the half-breeds of that generation only, and that no :scrip” should ever have been placed upon them. The chiefs present upon that occasion, according to Mr Cratte, were Red Wing, Black Dog, Little Crow Sr., Wacouta and Wapashaw.

1833 Death of Ohiya Renville on Mississippi near Little Falls.

1834 Samuel & Gideon Pond arrive in the present St.Paul area.

1835 Charles Joseph Latrobe, The Rambler in North America, 2: 215. "From the summit of the Pilot Knob, surmounted by the tomb of an Indian Chief, the view is most extended and interesting."

1836 Creation of Wisconsin Territory which encompassed Minnesota.

1837 Reverand Daniel Gavin and Reverand Samuel Denton, Swiss missionaries, came to Red Wing to teach religion to the Dakota. They remained for about nine years.

1837 Luthern mission established at Red Wing, continued for some years.

1837 August American Fur Company was trying to force the Dakota to sign certain papers acknowledging their debts.

Major Taliaferro hired Captain James Lafferty of the Steamboat Ariel to depart Fort Snelling with Dakota headmen. At Kaposia Big Thunder and his pipe bearer came aboard. At Red Wing Chief Wakute and his war chief came aboard, and at Winona Chief Wabasha and Etuzepa came aboard. 21 Sioux total. Leaving Galena August 23, 1837 the Ariel made her way down the Mississippi and up the Ohio to Pittsburgh, then overland to Washington. Secretary of War Joel R. Poinsett met the Sioux at Washington.

Henry Hastings Sibley, Alexis Baily, Joseph Laframboise, and Alexander and Oliver Faribault were present to protect the interests of the American Fur Company.

1837 September 29th treaty is signed by which the Sioux relinquished all claims to the pine forests of the St. Croix Valley.

The Fur Company representatives were able to include a provision whereby a sum of $90,000 was set aside for the payment of the just debts which they claimed the Indians owed them.

a fund of $110,000 to be divided among the mixed bloods connected with the tribe.

1837 November 8th Major Taliaferro returns to Fort Snelling from the 3000 mile journey to Washington and back.

1837 Small Pox epidemic kills up to 30,00 Sioux (?)

1838 Summer -Testimoney taken from mixed blood families, creating a list of 200 mixed bloods (national archives Microfilm M574 Roll 59)to be included for treaty payment.( Not all that where eligible where there at the time of the testimony and counting)

1840 Father Galtier builds log chapel and is greated by Renville family.

1841 Indian Agent suggested that the government might need to relocate these Dakota bands by force.

1841 Father Augustine Ravoux baptizes Frenier and works among the Dakota around Ft Snelling. Records are available from Register of baptisms, Deaths and marriages kept by Father Augustin Ravoux among the Sioux 1841-44 and on a trip up the Missouri in 1847.

1843 Father Ravoux writes a devotional work...Katolik Wocekiye Wowapi Kin

1846 The Mdewaknton tribe is numbered at about 2,150, The redwing band is numbered at 314/

1846 Cholera outbreak, “Carrying the Indians off at a fearful rate” according to Indian Agent Amos Bruce.

1847 & 1848 Seth Eastman, Indian Graves at the Mouth of the St. Peters, described in John Francis McDermott, Seth Eastman’s Mississippi: A Lost Portfolio Recovered. This watercolor in the Minnesota Historical Society is one of many done by Eastman of Dakota burial scaffolds at various locations near Fort Snelling. McDermott states that this water color resembles a pencil sketch done by Eastman entitled "Indian Graves on Pilot Knob." That sketch is in the collection of the Peabody Museum at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. McDermott states: "Perhaps these are the scaffolds we can make out on the top of the hill," in Eastman’s painting of Pilot Knob, listed below.

Seth Eastman, Pilots Knob. Mouth of the St. Peters River. A watercolor showing Pilot Knob from below Fort Snelling looking southeast. A burial scaffold is visible at the summit. Minnesota Historical Society.

Seth Eastman, Distant View of Fort Snelling, from the area of Camp Coldwater. Pilot Knob with a burial scaffold on its summit is visible in the background at right. Minnesota Historical Society.

Seth Eastman, Medicine Dance of the Sioux or Dakota Indians on the St. Peters River near Fort Snelling. A watercolor showing the Wakan ceremony, possibly on Pilot Knob where it was sometimes practiced. Minnesota Historical Society.

1847 A cholera outbreak kills 23 Dakota.

1848 Reverend J.F. Aiton investigates stone cairns on the bluffs above Cannon River / Redwing area and writes in detail about them.

1849 Minnesota Territory formed. White population less than 4000.

1849 John Bush who was teaching the Dakota farm methods reports, 55 acres had been plowed at Redwing.

1849 Red Wing Band numbered at about 300

1849 Alexander Ramsey the new Governor arrives by steamer in St. Paul to live.

1849 Presbyterian Missionaries Rev Hancock comes to Red Wing

1851 - Printed on June 10th Minnesota Democrat, reprinted from The Dakota Friend, probably by Samuel or Gideon Pond.

"Narrative of Eagle-Eye and Scarlet-Dove.

"Eagle Eye was the name of a Dakota who lived more than a century ago. He was the only son of a noted war Prophet. At the early age of twenty, he had distinguished himself on the field of blood and carnage, and was admitted to a conspicuous place in the ceremony around the painted board, where the Dakota warrior is permitted boastfully to narrate his military exploits. On these occasions, four quills of the War Eagle, crested his proud brow, while in the midst of the wild war yell of a hundred savage voices he related in the hearing of astonished spectators the exciting circumstances of those daring acts by which he won them.

"When wending the war path, Eagle-Eye carried a heart of stone that could meet any danger, or death. . . . Success in war though it gratified his savage nature did not render it happy; but he ever felt an anxious longing—a painful emptiness which at times beclouded all his joys. At length, the strong, struggling affections of his lonely heart, fixed upon the orphan daughter of a distinguished Mdewakantonwan brave, whose name was Scarlet-Dove. She was young and fair, and reciprocated his love; and they were joined in wedlock according to the most honorable custom of the Dakotas. Scarlet-Dove filled the void of Eagle-Eye's soul, and she coveted no other dwelling place. . . .

"A few short moons after the celebration of their nuptials Eagle-Eye and Scarlet-Dove, with their people, dropped down the Mississippi to Lake Pepin, in their canoes, and then proceeded by land to their hunting grounds east of the river.

"It chanced one day, as Eagle-Eye was stealing to an unsuspecting deer, under cover of the thick foliage of the under-brush an arrow pierced his heart. He only pronounced the name ‘Scarlet Dove,’ and expired. The cruel arrow had been driven by the twanging bow-string of the comrade of Eagle-Eye, who, unconscious of the presence of his friend, had approached from the opposite direction.

"We shall leave to the gentle reader to imagine what were the emotions of Scarlet-Dove when the sad tidings reached her. We may not attempt to speak such grief as her’s was; her own acts best express those big emotions, which well nigh burst her tender bosom.—After a few days nights of fruitless wailing and self-torture, despair settled down upon her and drove her murderous talons deep into her wounded heart; and in silent agony, which only the youthful widow can appreciate, she nicely wrapped the cold remains of Eagle-Eye in the ornamented skins of animals which he had brought back from the chase, and placing them upon a temporary scaffold, erected for the purpose, sat down under them. She still followed the moving party, carrying on her back the dead body of Eagle-Eye—all that was dear to her this side of the spirit-land.

"At every encampment she laid the body up in the manner already mentioned, and set down to watch it and mourn. When she had reached the Minnesota river, a distance of more then a hundred miles, Scarlet-Dove brought forks and poles from the woods and erected a permanent scaffold, on that beautiful hill opposite the site of Fort Snelling in the rear of the little town of Mendota, which is known by the name of Pilot Knob. Having adjusted the remains of the unfortunate object of her love upon this elevation, with the strap by which she had carried her precious burden, Scarlet-Dove hung herself to the scaffold and died. Her highest hope was to meet the beloved spirit of her Eagle-Eye in the world of spirits."


1851 July 23rd Treaty at Traverse des Sioux, where by the Dakota ceded their lands east of the Red River, Lake Traverse, and the Big Dakota River and south of a boundary line between the Dakota and the Chippewa in 1825. In return the Dakota would receive $1,665,000 US, 1,360,000 of which was set into a trust fund, of which the interest would be distributed to chiefs, partly in cash, partly in education and civilization funds.

. The chiefs and there men arrived by steamboat to the Treaty Signing. 30 men from Red Wings band went on the steamboat Dr. Franklin while Wabasha’s men went on the steamboat Nominee. The Steamboat Excelsior with traders and Chiefs of the Lower Sioux bands.

Officials met with Indian leaders at Mendota on July 29, explaining their purpose and giving the Dakota a copy of a proposed treaty. Wabasha and Wakute wanted to talk of the $45,600 still owed the eastern Dakota from the treaty of 1837.
Wabasha returned the treaty draft the next day without comment, and a long, uncomfortable silence followed. Lea said he hoped to have the treaty signed immediately. Wakute replied, “Our habits are different from those of the whites and when we have anything important to consider we take a long time.” Lea said he understood, but added disdainfully, “You are chiefs, not women and children; you can certainly give us an answer tomorrow.”
The following day an angry Little Crow, of the Kaposia band near St. Paul, pressed Dakota concerns about the earlier treaty, stating, “We will talk of nothing else but that money if it is until next spring.”
Wakute also spoke of broken promises. He recalled his 1837 trip to Washington where Mdewakanton leaders “...were told many things which...we found out could not be done. At the end of three or four years, the Indians found out very differently from what they had been told—and all were ashamed.” The leader of the Red Wing band feared more double-dealing from Washington.

1851 August- Thousands of Dakota move into 2 reservations bon the Minnesota River in Southern Minnesota. Lower Sioux Uper Sioux

1852 June 23rd The senate approves sale of Indian Lands and in August 1852 voted money to pay for it. Governor Alexander Ramsey needed to get Indian approval of Senate amendments to the new pact before the Indians left on their fall hunt. Territorial officials asked the four Eastern Dakota tribes to come to St. Paul for a treaty signing. Ramsey got quick acceptance to the agreement- including its payment plan for Indian debts to traders- from the Sisseton Wahpeton and Wahpekute. The Mdewakanton, however, voiced strong objections. Wabasha and Wakute led the opposition, with solid support from members of their bands.

Wabasha and Wakute demanded “hand money” cash to be given to them in open council. The chiefs declared that they would pay tribal debts to traders, not to Ramsey, who had convinced the other tribes that he should make such payments. Ramsey threatened to take the treaty money back to Washington.

“Take it back,” replied Wabasha, “we will take back our land.”

1852 Jphn Day left his Trenton, Wisconsin, home and became the first to cross the Mississippi and claim land in Red Wing. He took over a former missionary building while building a log cabin on a log cabin on the river flats just west of today’s boathouse village. The Mdewakanton tore down Day’s dwelling, but he returned to rebuild. Again, the Mdewakanton demolished the small building. Day built, and the Mdewakanton destroyed, the cabin about 6 times. Day decided to wait for treaty ratification.

1853 June 28th- Minnesota Superintendency

In consideration of the good character of Wacoota and his devotion and attachment to the Government of the United States and its citizens, and also in consideration of ( this next part has been crossed out on the original document…his being the descendant) having my confidence as a good man. I have hereby recognized him as the Chief of the said band of Sioux and desire all officers of the Government and all good citizens to respect him accordingly. Given under my hand, and the seal of the Superintendency this 28th Day of June 1853. And of the Independence of the United States the seventh. W.A. Gorman Govt. Superintendent Indian Affairs.

1855-The steamer Globe arrived at Redwood Agency, the indians would come several miles to meet the boat. They shouted "Nitanka peta-wata waste" "Your big fire-canoe is good". With the supplies on shore, 200 native woman then formed a circle, several natives handed the pieces of pork to the woman, until the pile was disposed of. The flour was placed in tin pans, each woman receiving a panfull.

1857 April The Fire Canoe commanded by R.M. Spencer was at the foot of Lake Pepin loaded with 300 tons of flour, pork and lard for the Indian Agency at Redwood. These annuities came from the Wood & Barclay Co of Davenport Iowa.

1857 May 6th 1857 with two barges in tow

1858- Battle of Shakopee with the Chippewa

1858 Treaty

1860 Annuity paid to the Mdewakanton and Wahpekute.

1862 August 18th, young Dakota men in search of food, kill some whites.

1862 September 26, General Henry Sibley and his army arrived at Camp Release. Within a few days, at Camp Release, there were: 1,918 Indians . Hostages: 4 white men, 104 white women and children, 162 mixed bloods. 2,188 total.

1862 September 27, the white and mixed-blood former hostages were taken from Camp Release to Fort Ridgley.

1862 September 28, Sibley begins trials at Camp Release.

1862 October 15, Sibley moved the trials and the Indians from Camp Release to the Upper Agency.

1862 October 25, Sibley moved the estimated 2,000 Indians from Upper Agency to Lower Agency and continued the trials.

1862 November 5, the trials had been concluded at the Lower Agency.

1862 November 7, about 1,658 Indians left Lower Sioux Agency for Fort Snelling. After leaving the Lower Sioux Agency, they crossed the Minnesota River somewhere between the Lower Sioux Agency and Fort Ridgely and camped at Fort Ridgely. This group rode and walked. This train was about 4 miles long.
This group took the Henderson Road from Fort Ridgely to Henderson.


1862 November 9, the remaining Indians left Lower Sioux Agency for Mankato. A 60 mile trip.

The condemned men were chained right leg of one man to the left leg of another. They rode in wagons. As this group approached New Ulm, General Sibley received word that there would be trouble in New Ulm. He decided to go around New Ulm or bypass the town. After passing the town, angry citizens came out and attacked the Indians. Two Indian men died that evening from injuries received in this attack. Sibley went into camp that night near present day Judson. Their eventual destination was a prison camp at South Bend near Mankato.

1862 November 11. The 1,600 Dakota prisoners passed through Henderson and were attacked by the citizens. Samuel Brown reported that a Dakota baby was killed here. He said that this baby was laid to rest in a tree near Faxon

Faxon was south of Henderson and on the same side of the Minnesota River. They stayed on this side of the Minnesota River until they reached Fort Snelling a distance of about 45 miles from Henderson.

1862 November 13. They reached Fort Snelling. Their group contained about 40 men

1862 December 26th, 1862- 38 men are hung in Mankato MN for the murders of whites the previous summer.


1863 February The first group of Indian scouts moved out of Fort Snelling . The first scout camp was established at Rice Creek west of Redwood Falls near the Minnesota River.

1863 June a small group of Mdewakanton were taken from Fort Snelling to Faribault.


1863 April 22, 1863, the remaining Indians at Mankato were loaded on a steamboat. About 48 of them, who were not guilty, were taken to Fort Snelling. The remainder were taken to a Davenport, Iowa‘s Camp McClellan.

1862 May 4, about 770 Indians at Fort Snelling were loaded on a steamboat and taken to Crow Creek on the Missouri River.

1863 On May 5, about 547 Indians at Fort Snelling were loaded on a steamboat and taken to the Crow Creek Reservation.

About thirty or forty families remained in Minnesota, and their men employed by the military as scouts and Messengers.”

1863 May 26th- From Assistant Adjutant General R. C. Olin St Paul MN

Sir- General Sibley has instructed me to enclose to you a copy, which you will find herewith, of a list of the Sioux Indians and half-breeds in camp at Fort Snelling, under the surveillance of the United States military authorities during the winter. The list was made December 2, 1862. There was a considerable number of deaths in the camp after the list was made out. Nearly fifty of the acquitted men prisoners from the Mankato prison were added to the number after the opening of the navigation. The families are mostly those of the condemned Indians now in confinement near Davenport Iowa. The families of the half-breeds who have land entered with their scrip on the Minnesota river, and of others with some reliable Indians who have been kept for use as scouts to the expedition about to take the field, were not dispatched with the main camp tp their new homes on the Missouri river. Very respectfully, your obedient servant. R.C. Olin.


1863 July 3rd- Little Crow shot and killed while gathering berries with his son. The pair had wandered onto the land of a white settler who shot Little Crow


1866 April -Dakota men, women and children leave Crow Creek Prison for the Santee Agency on the Niobrara River

1866 April- 177 Dakota men and several woman and children leave Davenport Iowa and arrive at the Santee Agency over a month later.

1873- April, Custer comes to the Niobrara on his way to the Yellowstone to guard the railroad surveyors. He picks several Dakota men from the Santee Agency to go along as Scouts\


1879 June 9th- Episcopal Mission Santee Agency, June 9th 1879. This is to certify that the bearer, an Indian by the name of Wakute is a communicatant of the Protestant-Episcopal Church, a man of good report with the Church of Christ, and among his own people, and is worthy of any kindness that may be shown him by white people in the country ????? Which he may travel.. W.W. Fowler Missionary to Santee.

1879 Wakute travels to Wabashaw MN to visit relatives, here he is interviewed for the paper. He shows the reporters Tatankamani’s 4 parchment documents and nd a medal that was brought from Quebec to the Mdewakanton Chiefs by Wabasha. This medal being the one given to Red Wing Chief. He said they were handed down to Wakute Sr, Tatankamanis brother , and then to him Wakute Jr. History of Wabasha County .


Entry by sara.c